Evaluation the efficacy of Metarhizium anisopliae and some plant extracts in controlling the housefly, Musca domestica in laboratory conditions

Akram Ali Mohammed

Abstract


A study of individual and combination between the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) and aqueous extract of three plant species including Nerium (Nerium oleander), Elias (Myrtus communis) and Sweet acacia (Vachellia farnesiana) were evaluated against adult houseflies, Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) in laboratory conditions. The fungal bioassay was carried out at different conidial concentrations ranging from1×104 to 1×109 spores ml-1. Four concentrations of aqueous extract of each plant (25, 50, 75 and 100%) were used. The highest concentration of M. anisopliae (1×109 spores ml-1) caused the highest adult houseflies mortality (100%), which was significantly different from the mortalities caused by the other fungal concentrations. Aqueous extract of Nerium was significantly more effective caused the highest adult mortality (83%) at high concentration (100%) compared with Elias and Sweet acacia (54 and 33% respectively). Therefore, three concentrations of aqueous extract of Nerium (50, 75 and 100%) were used along with 1×107 spores ml-1M. anisopliaeas an integrated pest management program against M. domestica. The combination of M. anisopliae and Nerium at all three concentrations caused more houseflies mortality than individual treatments of M. anisopliaeand Nerium respectively,7 days post-application. Thus, a combined application of an entomopathogenic fungus and aqueous extract of Nerium may benefit from both, and it has proven effective for the control of houseflies.


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