THE SHI'A HAWZAS BETWEEN CONSERVATISM AND REFORM

Abd al-Jabbar al-Rifa'i

Abstract


Religious education in Islamic life emerged in mosque.
The Prophet's Mosque in Madina was the first venue utilized
by the Prophet Muhammad to teach Quran and Hadith and
disseminate Islamic teachings. His companions followed his
way. Hence, The Prophet's Mosque in Madina became the
place where discussions about reading and interpreting Quran
took place, in addition to narrating Hadith and learning ‘Sharia.’
Later, Mosques in Kufa, Basra, Damascus, Fustat, and so on
followed the same path. Eventually, mosque became a space
for the study of Arabic grammar, theological discussions around
matters of Imamate, fate and destiny, and other categories of
‘‹Ilm al- Kalam.’ In Basra mosque, the first Mu'tazili argument
emerged in a panel discussion of Wasil Ibn ‹Ata' (700-748 AD


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