The Islamic Foundation for citizenship and pluralism

Roy Mottahedeh


Human diversity is an assumption of most people in most places. The reality of such diversity is handsomely and clearly stated in a famous and often quoted verse of the Qur’an. Verse 13 of Sūrah 49 reads: Oh men, We have created you from a male and a female, and We have made you into groups (shu`ūb) and tribes (qabā’il) that you may come to know one another; truly, the noblest (akram) among you before God is the most righteous (atqā) among you; truly God is the All-knowing, the All-seeing.

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